The administrators of security networks may want to subnet it for a few different reasons. A few examples would be address exhaustion, network security or administration ease.
There are typically 254 addresses for each host in a class C network, which is the most common. Often these addresses are quickly consumed by cameras and NVRs even in mid-sized surveillance and security systems. Additional addresses can also be used by controllers for access control, wireless radios and viewing stations.
A one-bit change to the subnet mask adds another 255 addresses, for example 255.255.255.0 altered to 255.255.254.0. The same amount of addresses is available for every bit added.
By creating separate subnets for different networks, such as surveillance, general local area network, and voice, a device on a subnet cannot access a device on another subnet.
Ease Of Administration
With subnetting, you can choose an IP scheme that allows you to handle a realistic number of hosts. For a small network, a discovery tool or network scan is more effective when it’s closer in number to actual devices rather than scanning thousands of unused addresses. These scans can take minutes versus hours.
Classfull Addresses / Private IP Addresses
A subnet mask can be changed from classfull to classless using borrowed bits, which changes the number of hosts and networks available. The two common ways this is done is increase hosts while decreasing networks, or decrease hosts while increasing networks. Whenever more hosts are needed, bits are borrowed from the network portion, and when more networks are needed, bits are borrowed from the host portion.
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